You can use a track in a single and re-release it again in an album with other tracks. Doing so will require you to create multiple releases.
First, create the release for the single track that you want to re-release later and record the ISRC for the track.
Later, when you submit the full album, you'll need to re-use the same track file & ISRC that you used on the single for it to match on partners as the same track version. Re-using the ISRC will help DSPs identify it as one track, and all play data will be saved for that track.
You can repeat this process for multiple tracks on the album release if you'd like, or you can even do an album made entirely of previously released singles.
For each release that you create, you will be required to use a new UPC and catalog number since these are all different products.
Once the album goes live, you can either choose to take down the single(s) or leave them up.