You can use a track in a single and re-release it again in an album with other tracks. This will require multiple releases, meaning submissions/catalog numbers will be required.
First, create the single using the track you want to re-release later and record the ISRC for the track.
Later, when you go to submit the full album later on you need to re-use the same track file & ISRC that you used on the single for it to match on partners as the same track version. By using the same ISRC when you re-delivered it partners will identify it as one track and all play data will be saved for that track.
You can repeat this process for multiple tracks on the album release if you'd like, or you can even do an album made entirely of previously released singles.
Once the album goes live you can choose to takedown the single(s) or leave them up.